發布時間︰奇米第四色 第二類難題是確定字義褒貶的問題。《家書》中選用的某一些字眼，表面上看來有肯定的意思，其實是否定的；另一些則表面看來是否定的，其實是肯定的，例如sweetness，romantic，flirtlng，automatic，wild等等，必須看前後文的語氣，才能測定確切的含意。以sweetness來說，字典的解釋中，全部是正面的，幾乎找不出一個貶義，但是在《家書》第67頁（舊版第63頁），傅雷提到莫扎特的音樂，推崇為“毫無世俗的感傷或是靡靡的sweetness”，此處既有“靡靡”在前，已經規限了後面那sweet-ness的含意，字典上的“甜蜜”、“甘甜”、“芳香”、“輕快”等字眼，一個都套用不上，最後，只好決定譯為“甜膩”，以示貶義，但又不違原意。相反的，“flirting”一字，一般譯為“調情賣俏”，多數含有貶義。但《家書》中另一處（第299頁，舊版第282頁）傅雷討論莫扎特的音樂時，稱之為“那種十八世紀式的flirting”，由于此處毫無低毀之意，充其量只可譯為“風情”。又如“wild”一字；英文原義含蘊極豐，既可解釋為uncivilized，savage，uncultured，rude，violent等，也可解釋為uncontrolled，elated，enthusiastic，free，raving，unconventional等等。《家書》中提到英國人唱“哈利路亞”時為wild，而說起莎士比亞人物如麥克白斯、奧塞羅等，也是wild，那麼，前者為“豪放”，後者就該譯為“狂放”了（第275276頁，舊版第259260頁）。至于“automatiC”一字，照字典上的解釋，大概就是“自動”而已。《家書》中第337頁（舊版第319頁）談到音樂的表演時，說道︰“心、腦、手的神經聯系，或許在音樂表演比別的藝術更微妙，不容易掌握到成為automatic的程度。”此處如果不慎把automatic譯注為“自動”，後果就不堪設想。試問演奏音樂而達至“自動”的程度，豈非靈性盡失，令人有“機械呆板”的感覺？這麼一來，就把傅雷原文中肯定的意思變為否定了。經一再斟酌，我把此處的“automatic”譯為“得心應手，收放自如”，我認為這樣才能符合傅雷筆下大演奏家的形象。 五月底來信及孩子照片都收到。你的心情我全體會到。工作不順手是常事，順手是例外，彼此都一樣。我身心交疲，工作的苦悶（過去）比你更厲害得多。 傅雷的認真，也和他的嚴肅一樣，常表現出一個十足地道的傅雷。有一次他稱贊我的翻譯。我不過偶爾翻譯了一篇極短的散文，譯得也並不好，所以我只當傅雷是照例敷衍，也照例謙遜一句。傅雷佛然忍耐了一分鐘，然後沉著臉發作道︰“楊絳，你知道嗎？我的稱贊是不容易的。”我當時頗像頑童听到校長錯誤的稱贊，既不敢笑，也不敢指出他的錯誤。可是我實在很感激他對一個剛試筆翻譯的人如此認真看待。而且只有自己虛懷若谷，才會過高地估計別人。 圖為傅聰與傅敏(1981年)
When 25 students from one local educational institution were asked to do a random drug test two weeks ago, administrators were a bit surprised to learn that only three were found to not have ganja in their system.
Guidance counsellor at the St John Bosco Boys Home in Manchester, Josephine Stultz, said the boys were asked to do the drug tests when they turned up at school one morning due to concerns about their behaviour.
“I have been observing from last term that some of the behaviour is very rapid, they can be very confrontational,” she said of the boys.
Administrators of the institution, which was converted into a time out facility last year, decided to partner with the Ministry of Education Region Five office to get the drug tests done. Parents had previously given consent for their children to be tested randomly.
“Before now, we suspected it, but we have been looking at information; informing them of the dangers,” said Stultz.
“But what I do find is that it is not so much information as misinformation because there is just this cultural practice and norm that this is something that these boys need to do. This is how they prove their manhood,” she told The Sunday Gleaner.
“They are also saying to us, without fear, that two ounces [is allowed] and they don’t have two, and so police can’t lock them up,” she said.
The Dangerous Drugs (Amendment) Act 2015 was passed by both Houses of Parliament in February of that year and came into effect in April. Based on the changes, possession of two ounces or less of ganja is no longer an offence for which one can be arrested, charged and tried in court, and will not result in a criminal record. However, the police may issue a ticket to a person in possession of two ounces or less of ganja, similar to a traffic ticket, and the person would have 30 days to pay $500 at any tax office.
Michael Tucker, executive director of the National Council on Drug Abuse (NCDA), said that four years after the amendment, a number of Jamaicans are still of the view that the use of the drugs has been legalised.
“What we have seen, which is a little worrying, is that people are confused,” he said, while reiterating calls for more campaigns to be done to educate people about what obtains under the new legislation.
“What our experience has been is that some public education was done, but enough wasn’t, so even students are saying it is legalised now,” he said.
Stultz said some of the boys have easy access to the drugs as it is planted in their backyards.
“I have students whose parents cultivate it and sell,” she said.
Based on the new provisions, the use of ganja by persons of the Rastafarian faith, and use of ganja for medicinal, therapeutic and scientific purposes is allowed. Each household is also allowed to legally grow no more than five ganja plants on its premises, and if there is more than one household on any premises, each household may grow five ganja plants.
Stultz said the boys were informed when being admitted to the institution that drug tests would be done; however, they have often bragged about being able to beat it.
“The boys are smart. When they hear that you are coming or they know, they tell me what they used to clean up so that it would be negative. They know what to take,” she said.
“They didn’t know that we were having this one. They just came in for devotion and, bam, it started. So they were caught off guard,” she explained.
Tucker said there has been a steady increase in requests for the services offered by the NCDA since the amendment to the act. Several requests for testing have come from guidance counsellors, school administrators, and even parents. Several of the boys have, however, made attempts to beat the test through a variety of means, including taking a sample of someone else’s urine to be tested. Tucker recalls one male even taking urine belonging to a female to be tested.
“There are various ways to mask what is there, but usually the test will show if the person is using because the ganja stays in your system for quite a while,” he said.
Under the Dangerous Drugs (Amendment) Act 2015, a person who is found in possession of two ounces or less who is under the age of 18 years, or who is 18 years or older and appears to the police to be dependent on ganja is referred to the NCDA for counselling.